Imam al-Sadiq’s marriages to Abbasids and Umayyads
Our ahadith record our Imams having infiltrated the governments of oppressors in numerous ways - for the benefit of their secretive da’wah movement, such as:
- Loyal viziers, such as Ali ibn Yaqtin
- Recruiting members of the Abbasid family, such as al-Mutawakkil’s mother
- Recruiting members of the Abbasid government, such as Banu Nawbakht
- Recruiting the hajib (prime minister) of the Abbasid govt, such as Sa’id al-Hajib in the era of Imam al-Hadi
One of the ways in which such recruitment was facilitated, but is not widely discussed, is marriage.
Imam al-Ridha & al-Jawad married the daughters of al-Ma’mun. Imam Ali gave his daughter to Umar. However, these seem to be political maneuvurings by those rulers against the Imams.
However, Imam al-Sadiq willingly married his daughters to Umayyad & Abbasid men - likely indicating this is to co-opt these figures. Particularly since the Abbasid figure, governor of Mecca, appears to have become Shi’i. This will be the subject of today’s post:
- Umayyad marriage
(Rijal al-Kashi, vol 2, page 678):
Dawud ibn Ali al-Abbasi, in an attempt to criticize Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, said:
“You [O Jafar] have also commmitted a sin which Allah does not forgive you for.
He [Jafar] said: ‘And what might that sin be?’
Dawud said: ‘You have married your daughter to Fulan, the Umayyad.’
Imam Jafar said: ‘If I had married my daughter to Fulan the Umayyad, then Rasul Allah had married his daughter to Uthman, and Rasul Allah is a model for me [in my action]’”
فقال له داود: وأنت قد أتيت ذنبا لا يغفره الله لك قال: وما ذاك الذنب؟ قال زوجت ابنتك فلانا الأموي، قال: إن كنت زوجت فلانا الأموي فقدزوج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله عثمان، ولي برسول الله أسوة.
Given that Imam al-Sadiq lived through both the Umayyad and Abbasid eras, if this marriage took place in the Umayyad period - it is most likely for political advantage for the Imam’s da’wah movement.
- Abbasid marriage
A man named Muhammad ibn Ibrahim, governor of Mecca, was the husband of Fatima - daughter of Imam al-Sadiq.
(Tahdheeb al-Ahkam, vol 7, page 471)
“Abu al-Hasan al-Madhi (i.e, Imam al-Kadhim) was with Muhammad ibn Ibrahim - the governor of Mecca - and he is the husband of Fatima, daughter of Abi Abdilah (as) [i.e, Imam al-Sadiq]”
قال: كان أبو الحسن الماضي (عليه السلام) عند محمد ابن إبراهيم والي مكة وهو زوج فاطمة بنت أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)
Upon inspection into the background of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim - the governor of Mecca, we find the following.
It would seem that Muhammad is the son of the founder of the Abbasid movement, Ibrahim al-Imam, however it would seem he ended up following Tashayyu’ on Imam al-Sadiq’s path:
“Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Imam ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Abdulmuttalib:
From the companions of al-Sadiq (as), has many ahadith narrated from (al-Sadiq). He was killed in 140 AH at at the age of 57.”
12231 - محمد بن إبراهيم الإمام بن محمد بن علي بن عبد الله بن العباس بن عبد المطلب:
من أصحاب الصادق عليه السلام. وله نسخة كبيرة عنه عليه السلام. و أصيب سنة 140 وله سبع وخمسون سنة. وتقدم في أبيه مزيد بيانفي حقه. بعض رواياته في بشا ص 197 مكررا.
Going to Mukhalif sources, Tarikh Dimashq by Ibn ‘Asakir speaks of “Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Imam ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Abdulmuttalib” being appointed governor of Mecca and leading hajj once.
Interestingly enough - Tarikh Dimashq records a hadith in which the grandson of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim, narrates from his father, from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim, from Imam al-Sadiq.
Thus, corroborating the Shi’i ahadith in establishing some form of relation existed between al-Sadiq and Muhammad ibn Ibrahim: