Mufaddal: Bab of al-Sadiq

When the Shi’a of today imagine the Shi’a of the time of Imam al-Sadiq –

They picture a world of consensus, close fraternity between faith brothers, and easy - direct access to the Imam for all. 

The ultimate utopia.

Reality couldn’t be farther, however, from any of those conceptions.

Neither were the Shi’a in consensus and sharing a conception of brotherhood among all their religious compatriots:


Narrated Sudayr, saying: 

I told Abu Ja'far (al-Baqir): "I have left your followers while they are in state of perpetual disagreement and disassociating from one another. 

What should I do?" He replied: "And what are you in that? People are only obligated with three things: recognizing the Imams, submitting to them in what is ordained upon them, and referring back to them in what they differ."

فقالوالله ما يقدر أرزاقنا إلا الله، ولقد احتجت إلى طعام لعيالي فضاق صدري وأبلغت إلي الفكرة في ذلك حتى أحرزت قوتهم، فعندهاطابت نفسي، لعنه الله وبرئ منه، قالاأفنلعنه ونتبرأ منه؟ قالنعم، فلعناه وبرئنا منه

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“Imam al-Ridha said:

“The companions of Zurara used to consider as disbelievers all the others (apart from themselves), and likewise, the others used to consider them as disbelievers.”

لقد كان أصحاب زرارة يكفرون غيرهم، و كذلك غيرهم كانوا يكفرونهم

فقالهكذا كان أصحاب علي بن الحسين ومحمد بن علي وأصحاب جعفر وموسى (صلوات الله عليهمولقد كان أصحاب زرارة يكفرونغيرهم، وكذلك غيرهم كانوا يكفرونهم.

فقلت لهيا سيدي نستعين بك على هذين الشيخين يونس وهشام وهما حاضران، فهما أدبانا وعلمانا الكلام، فان كنا يا سيدي على هدىففزنا، وان كنا على ضلال فهذان أضلانا، فمرنا، بتركه ونتوب إلى الله منه، يا سيدي فادعنا إلى دين الله نتبعك.

Nor did all companions enjoy easy, direct access to the Imam. 

This sparked jealousy and ire among the Shi’i clergy, leading to intense episodes of character assassination against those privileged with close access to the Imam:

(Rijal al-Kashi, vol 2, page 547)

“Imam al-Ridha said:

Hisham was an earnest slave (of Allah) however he was harmed by his companions out of envy from him

6 - حدثنا حمدويه وإبراهيم ابنا نصير، قالاحدثنا محمد بن عيسى، قالحدثني زحل عمر بن عبد العزيز بن أبي بشار، عن سليمان بنجعفر الجعفري، قالسألت أبا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام عن هشام بن الحكم؟ قال، فقال ليرحمه الله كان عبدا ناصحا أوذي من قبلأصحابه حسدا منهم له.

What made the matter more problematic is the level of taqiyya (dissimulation) our Imams underwent to obfuscate whom in fact is blessed and whom isn’t.

In a hadith graded sahih by Sayyid al-Khoei (Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol 17, page 163) –

We can observe the intriguing following phenomenon involving Imam al-Jawad:

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“Narrated Muhammad ibn Isma'il ibn Buzay':

Imam al-Jawad used to instruct me to curse Safwan ibn Yahya and Muhammad ibn Sinan. 

He said: "They opposed my command." 

Yet however, when was a chance to meet others –

Imam al-Jawad said to Muhammad ibn Sahl al-Bahrani: 'Have wilayah (love, association, and following for) Safwan ibn Yahya and Muhammad ibn Sinan. Indeed, I am pleased with them”

- " حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قالحدثني سعد، عن أحمد بن هلال، عن

محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع، أن أبا جعفر عليه السلام كان يخبرني بلعن صفوان

ابن يحيى، ومحمد بن سنان، فقالإنهما خالفا أمري، وقالفلما كان من قابل،

قال أبو جعفر عليه السلام لمحمد بن سهل البحرانيتول صفوان بن يحيى،

ومحمد بن سنان، فقد رضيت عنهما ".

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“Narrated Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Dawood al-Qumi:

I heard Imam al-Jawad mentioning the goodness of Safwan ibn Yahya and Muhammad ibn Sinan. 

The Imam said: "May Allah be pleased with both of them as I am pleased with them. They never opposed me at any time. 

This is after what has been reported about them that I have heard from our associates."

1 - " حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قالحدثني سعد بن عبد الله، قالحدثني أبو جعفر أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن رجل، عن علي بنالحسين بن داود القمي، قالسمعت أبا جعفر الثاني عليه السلام يذكر صفوان بن يحيى، ومحمد ابن سنان بخير، وقالرضي الله عنهمابرضائي عنهما، لا (فماخالفاني قط، هذا بعد ما جاء عنه فيهما ما قد سمعته من أصحابنا 

Something is immediately clear:

Imam al-Jawad would curse his close elite to some of his companions, while exonerating them fully to other companions.

This extreme level of taqiyya (which I have explicated in my Abu al-Khattab series), alongside the other aforementioned factors, has led to the production of starkly contrasting ahadith on the character of Mufaddal ibn Umar (both positive and negative).

For the purpose of this article, I will not attempt to rationalize said ahadith.

Rather, I will endeavor to utilize both positive and negative portrayals of Mufaddal to help us reconstruct his time as deputy of Imam al-Sadiq, and what his position and duties exactly were.

So without further adue

Let us begin!



In the 750s CE, an extraordinary event took place which shook the restive city of Kufa to its core.

Abu al-Khattab, the gate (Bab) and deputy of Imam al-Sadiq, had risen against the Abbasids but was brutally killed along with 70 of his companions.

This was a very disturbing development, as our ahadith record عامة اهل الكوفة – i.e, the majority of Kufa’s Shi’a – as being dependent on Abu al-Khattab to guide them in the matters of religion. (Tahdhib al-Ahkam, vol 2, page 33)

In this ensuing frenzy and panic, they went to Imam al-Sadiq and urged him:

Establish for us a man whom we can turn to for the matters of our religion and the judgments we need”

Imam al-Sadiq responded:

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“Nasr ibn al-Sabbah narrated, through the chain of Ibn Abi 'Umair, that when Abu al-Khattab manifested what he manifested –

The Shia went to Abu Abdullah (peace be upon him) and said: "Establish for us a man whom we can turn to for the matters of our religion and the judgments we need." He replied: "You do not need that. Whenever any of you has a need, come to me, listen to what I say, and then leave." 

They insisted, and he said: "I have established over you al-Mufaddal. Listen to him and accept his narrations from us, for he does not speak about Allah and myself except with the truth." 

However, things turned against him, and they accused him and his companions, saying: "His companions do not pray, they drink wine, they are the companions of pidgeons, they raid caravans. Al-Mufaddal, on the other hand, brings them close and draws them near."

وحكى نصر بن الصباحعن ابن أبي عمير بأسناده أن الشيعة حين أحدث أبو الخطاب ما أحدثخرجوا إلى أبي عبد الله عليه السلامفقالوا أقم لنا رجلا نفزع إليه في أمر ديننا وما نحتاج إليه من الاحكام؟ قاللا تحتاجون إلى ذلك متى ما احتاج أحدكم عرج إلي وسمعمني وينصرف، فقالوالابد:

فقالقد أقمت عليكم المفضل اسمعوا منه وأقبلوا عنه، فإنه لا يقول على الله وعلي الا الحق، فلم يأت عليه كثير شئ حتى شنعوا عليه وعلىأصحابه، وقالوا:

أصحابه لا يصلون ويشربون النبيذ وهم أصحاب الحمام ويقطعون الطريق، والمفضل يقربهم ويدنيهم.

The appointed Bab of Kufa and successor to Abu al-Khattab was no other than Imam al-Sadiq’s companion of Persian origin:

Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar al-Ju’fi.

But why? Who exactly was Mufaddal ibn Umar, in Imam al-Sadiq’s eyes?

The following hadith in the hadith compendium, al-Ikhtisas, shares the Imam’s lens on Mufaddal with us.

It goes without saying that the isnad (chain of transmission) of the hadith below was accepted by Sayyid al-Khoei as sahih (authentic) and the book al-Ikhtisas was accepted by Khoei as being attributed to Shaykh al-Mufid.

Later on, however, Khoei recanted his attribution of al-Ikhtisas to al-Mufid – yet, many scholars accept the book as one of Mufid’s to this day.

Knowing the book is widely accepted to be Mufid’s and the grading of the isnad as sahih (an opinion of which Khoei did not revise) –

The following hadith becomes of high importance for us to understand the traits which made Mufaddal so worthy of the position of Bab of Kufa:

(Khoei’s Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol 19, page 328)

And Sheikh Al-Mufid narrated with an authentic chain of narrators, on the authority of Abdullah ibn al-Fadl al-Hashimi, he said: 

I was with Al-Sadiq Ja’far ibn Muhammad, peace be upon them, when Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar entered, and when he saw him he laughed with him, then said: 

Come to me, O Mufaddal! By Allah, I love you and I love whomever loves you.

O Mufaddal, if all of my companions knew what you know, no two people among them would ever differ

وروى الشيخ المفيد بسنده الصحيح، عن عبد الله بن الفضل الهاشمي، قالكنت عند الصادق جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام إذ دخلالمفضل بن عمر، فلما بصر به ضحك إليه، ثم قالإلي يا مفضل، فوربي إني لأحبك وأحب من يحبك، يا مفضل لو عرف جميع أصحابي ماتعرف ما اختلف اثنان، (الحديث).

Upon inspection –

The report reveals to us deeper insight into Mufaddal’s character than what may be inclined to believe, allowing us to better understand why was Mufaddal picked to succeed Abu al-Khattab.

This is because Imam al-Sadiq is reported to have:

(1) Laughed with Mufaddal. This suggests particular fondness and personal relationship with Mufaddal, as the Imam does not produce such demeanor – except to people close to his heart. 

The Imam is not a normal human, who laughs for no reason or to have a fun time. His every action is calculated, with a purpose.

Imam al-Sadiq says:

“Muawiyah ibn Wahb narrated from Imam al-Sadiq:

I asked the Imam: “What is the sign of being an Imam after the preceding Imam (a.s.)?” 

The Imam (a.s.) said, “ Being of pure birth, good up bringing and that he would not trifle or engage in amusement.”

الكافيمحمد بن يحيى عن محمد بن إسماعيل عن علي بن الحكم عن معاوية بن وهب قالقلت لأبي (4) عبد الله عليه السلامما علامةالامام الذي بعد الامام؟ فقال:

طهارة الولادة وحسن المنشأ ولا يلهو ولا يلعب

From Imam al-Sadiq’s words, an Imam cannot trifle nor engage in amusement!

This indicates that the purpose of Imam al-Sadiq’s laughter with Mufaddal is not merely spontaneous.

Rather – it is to show the Shi’a that Mufaddal is of an esteemed and affectionate status to the Imam. 

(2) Says he loves him and loves whomever loves him.

Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar was associated with the Khattabiya, as previously discussed.

The Imam here is positioning Mufaddal as an integral part of the Khattabiya – described as those who love Mufaddal – and exonerating them from the rumors attributed to them, such as:

His companions do not pray, they drink wine”

This is because the Imam would not love people is corrupt in religion or defiantly disobedient.

By uttering his holy words, Imam al-Sadiq makes Mufaddal’s Khattabi credentials work for him - instead of against him. 

Mufaddal’s personal piety makes the Imam love him, and his association with those who love him (the Khattabiya – similarly pious) makes him the best contender to succeed Abu al-Khattab – the leader of the Khattabiya movement itself.

(3) If the companions of Imam al-Sadiq knew all of what Mufaddal knew, they would not differ. 

This suggests al-Mufaddal was bestowed with high esoteric (batin) and secret knowledge, which the bulk of companions did not have.

Being endowed with such secret and esoteric knowledge by our Imams is an important criterion of Babhood.

As the Imam’s gate and repository of his secrets, the Shi’a are not allowed to doubt Mufaddal’s words & ahadith – even if they do not make sense to them.

This is because Mufaddal was taught by the Imam to comprehend and receive secretive knowledge, which commoners do not possess. 

Thus, they cannot judge a report by Mufaddal or one of his commands to be false – because they do not have the necessary secretive and esoteric context to fully understand these words.

A signed letter of Imam al-Mahdi states:

(Wasa’il al-Shi’a, vol 1, page 27)

“There is no excuse for our followers to doubt what our thiqat (i.e, Babs) narrate from us.

They have known that we entrust them with our secrets with them and teach them to be able to bear it (i.e, comprehend it better than anyone else)

فإنه لا عذر لأحد من موالينا في التشكيك فيما يرويه (1) عنا ثقاتنا، قد عرفوا بأنا نفاوضهم سرنا، ونحملهم (2) إياه إليهم.


The Babs (and Mufaddal is no exception) portrayed themselves to be reincarnations of previous prophets:

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“On the authority of al-Mufaddal:

70 men were killed along with Abi Ismail - meaning Aba al-Khattab - 70 prophets, all of them exclaimed amazement with his [Abu al-Khattab]’s prophethood’”

قال الكشيوذكرت الطيارة الغالية في بعض كتبها، عن المفضل أنه قال:

لقد قتل مع أبي إسماعيل - يعني أبا الخطاب - سبعون نبيا كلهم رأى وهلل نبينا فيه، 

(Rijal al-Kashi, volume 2, page 615)

“Narrated Ali ibn al-Hakam that al-Mufaddal ibn Umar that used to proselytize that Abu al-Khattab and Fulan are among the messengers (of God)”

وعن حمدويه وإبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن المفضل بن عمر، أنه كان يبشر (2) أبا الخطاب وفلان أنكما لمنالمرسلين.

(Rijal al-Kashi)

Al-Mufaddal said: ‘We entered upon Abi Abdilah [al-Sadiq] and we were 12 men. 

Abi Abdilah came to greet each man from among us, one by one, and named each man by a prophet’s name. 

He told some of us: Peace be upon you, O Nuh.

He told some of us: Peace be upon you, O Ibrahim.

And he told the last man he greeter: Peace be upon you, O Yunus. 

Then he [the Imam] said: ‘There is no difference between prophets’

وإن المفضل قالدخلنا على أبي عبد الله عليهالسلامونحن اثنا عشر رجلا، قالفجعل أبو عبد الله يسلم على رجل رجل منا، ويسمي كل رجل منا باسم نبي، وقال لبعضناالسلام عليك يانوح،وقال لبعضناالسلام عليك يا إبراهيم، وكان آخر من يسلم عليه وقالالسلام عليك يا يونسثم قاللا تخاير بين الأنبياء.

The factor of prophetic character is undoubtedly intended to give Mufaddal an aura of infallibility in the eyes of the Shi’a.

Together, all of the aforementioned points serve a helpful role in forming the image of Mufaddal as the Bab of Imam al-Sadiq.

However, the Shi’i community of Kufa at the time of Imam al-Sadiq was quite large in size. 

The community undoubtedly differed in their degrees of faith.

Imposing the leadership of one man over all of Kufan Shi’a requires more than mere proclamations of Mufaddal’s spiritual right to rule over them.

So what else did Imam al-Sadiq do to reinforce Mufaddal’s leadership over the Shi’a?


Given the large size of Shi’a and their diverging levels of comprehension –

It is safe to say that there would have been people who did not see loyalty and personal surrender to Mufaddal as a necessary religious undertaking.

They had loyalty to Imam al-Sadiq, the very defining figure of their Tashayyu’, but saw Mufaddal as a mere comrade-in-religion of theirs – not a superior.

Therefore – to impose Mufaddal’s authority, Imam al-Sadiq was inclined to infuse the idea of obedience to him as Imam with obedience to Mufaddal.

One of the ways Imam al-Sadiq had done so was giving Mufaddal’s managerial capacity over his personal money:

(Al-Kafi, vol 2, page 209)

“Narrated Abu Hanifa, the predecessor of Al-Hajj:

Al-Mufaddal passed by us while I and my son-in-law were disputing about inheritance. 

He stopped by us for an hour, then said: 'Come to the house.' 

We went to him, and he reconciled between us with four hundred dirhams, which he paid to us from his own money. 

When each of us was satisfied with his Mufaddal he said: 'Indeed, this is not from my money, but Abu Abdullah (al-Sadiq) commanded me that when two men from our companions dispute over something, I should reconcile between them and compensate it from his money. So, this is from the money of Abu Abdullah (al-Sadiq)."

وبالإسناد عن ابن سنان، عن أبي حنيفة سابق الحاجّ، قالمرّ بنا المفضّل وأنا وختني نتشاجر في ميراث، فوقف علينا ساعة، ثم قال لناتعالوا إلى المنزل، فأتيناه، فأصلح بيننا بأربعمائة درهم فدفعها إلينا من عنده، حتى إذا استوثق كلّ واحد منّا من صاحبه، قالأما إنّهاليست من مالي ولكن أبو عبد الله عليه ‌السلام أمرني إذا تنازع رجلان من أصحابنا في شيء أن أصلح بينهما وافتديها من ماله، فهذا منمال أبي عبد الله (عليه‌ السلام

We know that typical deputies of our Imams were entrusted with collecting religious tithes from the Shi’a, and distributing such tithes – only with specific instructions from the Imam.

However, to be entrusted with managing the Imam’s personal money, you would have to be a deputy of highly distinguished status over other deputies.

It is an exclusive position, which we can see observe below:

Imam al-Jawad had delegated his companion Abdullah ibn al-Musawir to manage his estate (including land, money, expenditure, slaves, etc) before al-Jawad’s son Ali al-Hadi reaches puberty.


“Ahmad ibn Abu Khalid, a mawla (freed slave) of Abu Ja'far (al-Jawad) witnessed that Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Musa ibn Ja'far ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (peace be upon him) entrusted Ali, his son, with himself and his brothers.

Imam al-Jawad designated the authority over his son Musa to himself (i.e. Musa manages his own property - instead of Ali managing it), when he becomes of age. 

(Before Ali & other children reach puberty) – Imam al-Jawad also appointed Abdullah ibn Al-Masawir to manage his estate, including land, wealth, expenditures, slaves, and more.”

شهد أحمد ابن أبي خالد مولى أبي جعفر أنّ أبا جعفر محمد بن علي بن موسى بن جعفر بن محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبيطالب عليه السلام أشهده أنّه أوصى إلى علي ابنه بنفسه وإخوته وجعل أمر موسى إذا بلغ إليه ، وجعل عبد الله بن المساور قائماً على تركتهمن الضِياع والأموال والنفقات والرقيق وغير

That being said –

We can note that managerial ability over the Imam’s personal wealth was a special position which our Imams permitted only two types of people:

1- The succeeding Imam

2- The Imam’s Bab (gate)

As for the latter, we can offer the example of Al-Mu’ala ibn Khunays, described as a praised safeer (i.e, Bab of Imam al-Sadiq) by Shaykh al-Tusi in his book al-Ghayba, vol 1, p 368.

Imam al-Sadiq described the privileged, distinguishable position of Mu’ala as being the manager of his wealth and overseer of his children:

(Al-Ghayba of al-Tusi, vol 1, page 368)

“Narrated by Abu Basir, he said: 

When Dawood ibn Ali killed Al-Muala ibn Khunays, he proceeded to crucify Mu’ala. 

This greatly saddened Abu Abdullah (al-Sadiq), and the situation became intense for him. 

Imam al-Sadiq said to Dawood, "O Dawood! For what reason did you kill my mawla (freed slave) and the manager of my wealth and overseer my children? By Allah, there is no valid justification for you in the sight of Allah."

فروي عن أبي بصير قاللما قتل داود بن (علي) (4) المعلى بن خنيس فصلبه (5)، عظم ذلك على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام واشتد عليه وقالله:

يا داودعلى ما قتلت مولاي وقيمي في مالي وعلى عيالي؟ والله إنه لاوجه عند الله منك، في

Therefore, a defining feature of Muala’s Babhood that made him superior to other Shi’a was in the fact he managed Imam al-Sadiq’s personal wealth. It signified his Babhood.

Similarly –

We can infer that Mufaddal’s position to manage Imam al-Sadiq’s personal wealth highlighted his Babhood, showed him superior to other Shi’a, and imposed his authority over them.


Another aspect defining Muala’s Babhood & authority over the Shi’a was the fact he was the overseer of Imam al-Sadiq’s children.

(Al-Ghayba of Tusi)

Imam al-Sadiq said to Dawood, "O Dawood! For what reason did you kill my mawla (freed slave) and the manager of my wealth and overseer my children? By Allah, there is no valid justification for you in the sight of Allah."

فروي عن أبي بصير قاللما قتل داود بن (علي) (4) المعلى بن خنيس فصلبه (5)، عظم ذلك على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام واشتد عليه وقالله:

يا داودعلى ما قتلت مولاي وقيمي في مالي وعلى عيالي؟ والله إنه لاوجه عند الله منك، في

We know that was the case for Mufaddal as well.

The Imam asked him to oversee Imam Musa al-Kadhim:


Narrated al-Mufaddal ibn Umar: 

“I was with Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq), peace be upon him, and Abu Ibrahim (Musa al-Kadhim) entered while he was a young boy. 

Imam Jafar said: 'Take care of him (Musa al-Kadhim), and entrust his affairs to someone trustworthy among your companions.'"

4 - أحمد بن مهران، عن محمد بن علي، عن موسى الصيقل، عن المفضل بن عمر قالكنت عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فدخل أبو إبراهيمعليه السلام وهو غلام، فقالاستوص به، وضع أمره عند من تثق به من أصحابك

There is also indication that Imam al-Sadiq had entrusted Mufaddal to oversee the affairs of his eldest son, Ismail.

The first sign of this is a hadith of al-Kafi, where Imam al-Sadiq sent a letter to Mufaddal where hesends his condolensces to Mufaddal over the death of Ismail.

This is a particularly bizarre situation, because it is not typical for the father of a deceased to send condolensces to the deceased’s friend, unless that friend had a fatherly and very close mentor relationship with the son.

In a sahih hadith, 


“Yunus ibn Ya'qub narrated: Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq) instructed me to visit al-Mufaddal and offer condolences for the death of Isma'il ibn Ja’far.

He said, "Read the greeting of peace to al-Mufaddal and tell him: 'We have experienced the loss of Isma'il, and we endured with patience. Be patient as we have been patient. We desired one thing, and Allah Almighty desired another. So, we submit to the command of Allah, the Almighty.'"

16 - عنه، عن علي بن الحكم، عن يونس بن يعقوب قالأمرني أبو عبد الله (عليه السلامأن آتي المفضل وأعزيه بإسماعيل وقالاقرأالمفضل السلام (1) وقل لهإنا قد أصبنا بإسماعيل فصبرنا، فاصبر كما صبرنا، إنا أردنا أمرا وأراد الله عز وجل أمرا، فسلمنا لأمر الله عزوجل. (1) 

Sayyid al-Khoei says: “This report indicates the very close relationship al-Sadiq (a) had with al-Mufaddal ibn Umar. Additionally, the report is sahih (authentic) (Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith, vol 19, page 327)

أقولهذه الرواية تدل على شدة علاقة الصادق عليه السلام بالمفضل بن عمر، والرواية صحيحة

The second sign is where Imam al-Sadiq condemns Mufaddal in taqiyya and admonishing him for corrupting his son Ismail:

(Rijal al-Kashi, vol 2, page 612)

“I heard Aba Abdilah tell al-Mufaddal ibn Umar: 

‘O kafir, o mushrik! You have nothing to do with my son [Ismail ibn Ja’far]’”

جبريل بن أحمد، قالحدثني محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن حماد بن عثمان، قالسمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول للمفضل بن عمرالجعفييا كافر يا مشرك مالك ولا بني، يعني إسماعيل بن جعفر،

While this condemnation was uttered in taqiyya, as we have discussed previously in detail –

This reports shows that Mufaddal was overseeing Ismail in some capacity.

Mufaddal’s paternalistic relationship with Imam al-Sadiq’s children, such Ismail and Musa al-Kadhim, further highlights his Babhood and imposes his authority over the Shi’a.

For this reason, Imam al-Sadiq had described Mufaddal ibn Umar as “a father in succession to a father”:

(Rijal al-Kashi)

Hisham ibn Ahmad narrated: I entered upon Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq), peace be upon him, intending to inquire about al-Mufaddal ibn Umar. It was an extremely hot day, and sweat was flowing down his chest. He began by saying, "Yes, by Allah, the One besides whom there is no deity. Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar al-Ju’fi is indeed a father in successon to the father (i.e, the Imam). He repeated this thirty or so times.”

العلاء، عن هشام بن أحمد، قالدخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه

السلام وأنا أريد أن أسأله عن المفضل بن عمر وهو في ضيعة له في يوم شديد

الحر، والعرق يسيل على صدره، فابتدأني فقالنعم والله الذي لا إله إلا هو،

المفضل بن عمر الجعفي، حتى أحصيت نيفا وثلاثين مرة يقولها ويكررها، قال:

إنما هو والد بعد الوالد

(Rijal al-Kashi)

I heard Abu al-Hasan (Musa al-Kadhim) saying: When the death of al-Mufaddal ibn Umar came to him, he said, 'May Allah have mercy on him. He was indeed a father after the father, and now he has found rest.'"

قال سمعت أبا الحسن يقول:(لما أتاه موت المفضل بن عمر قال رحمه اللهكان الوالد بعد الوالد أما أنه قد استراح)

 Undoubtedly –

A man of fatherly position to the Imams, is of fatherly position to the Shi’a. 

This is because the Imam is a father to the Shi’a.

Thus, Mufaddal overseeing Imam al-Sadiq’s children further reinforced his authority, status, and respect among the Shi’a.


The decision to love or hate Mufaddal is an intensely personal decision.

No one can force the Shi’a to love Mufaddal, just as the prophet did not force the munafiqun (hypocrites) to love him.

Yet, however – the munafiqun did tend to spend towards the prophet’s Islamic state unwillingly, so that they are not exposed as hypocrites.

“Say, "Spend willingly or unwillingly; never will it be accepted from you. Indeed, you have been a defiantly disobedient people." (Quran 9:53)

In a similar fashion, the Shi’a were obligated to spend khums to the Imam.

Anyone who does not spend khums would be cast out as a hypocrite or disbeliever.

Knowing this, the Imam made Mufaddal the conduit by which the Shi’a would pay their obligatory religious dues.

In other words –

The Shi’a of Kufa could not pay their dues to the Imam, except through Mufaddal – the deputy of Kufa.

This not only gave Mufaddal administrative seniority over the Shi’a commoners and clergy, but also signified something important:

Obedience to Mufaddal is obedience to the Imam.

If you refuse to pay Mufaddal, you refuse to pay the Imam and thus you disobey him.

Mufaddal’s role as khums collector can be seen in the following ahadith:

(Tafsir al-Ayyashi)

“Narrated Mufaddal ibn Umar: 

I entered upon Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq) one day, carrying something with me.

 I placed it before him, and he asked, "What is this?" I replied, "These are your tithes from your followers and servants." 

He said to me, "O Mufaddal, I do not accept this, nor do I accept anything brought to me because I need it.

Rather, I accept this money from so they can become purified by performing this endeavors.

Then he said, "I heard my father (Imam al-Baqir) saying: Whoever passes a year without sending us anything from his wealth, be it little or much, Allah will not look at him on the Day of Judgment, except if Allah forgives him."

He continued, "O Mufaddal, it is an obligation that Allah has imposed on our Shia in His book when He says: 'You will not attain righteousness until you spend from that which you love...”

1) - 4 - تفسير العياشيعن مفضل بن عمر قالدخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام يوما ومعي شئ فوضعته بين يديه، فقالما هذا؟فقلتهذه صلة مواليك وعبيدك قالفقال لييا مفضل إني لاقبل ذلك، وما أقبل من حاجة بي إليه، وما أقبله إلا ليزكوا به.

ثم قالسمعت أبي عليه السلام يقولمن مضت له سنة لم يصلنا من ماله قل أو كثر لم ينظر الله إليه يوم القيامة إلا أن يعفو الله عنه.

ثم قاليا مفضل إنها فريضة فرضها الله على شيعتنا في كتابه إذ يقول:

لن تنالوا البر حتى تنفقوا مما تحبون " (2) فنحن البر والتقوى، وسبيل الهدى، وباب التقوى، لا يحجب دعاؤنا عن الله، اقتصروا علىحلالكم و حرامكم، فسلوا عنه، وإياكم أن تسألوا أحدا من الفقهاء عما لا يعينكم وعما ستر الله عنكم

(Dala’il al-Imamah)

“O Abu Khalid, this is a bag sent to me by Fulan through al-Mufaddal ibn Umar. 

I needed the money inside, yet the journey was intimidating.

So I sent these animals and they brought the bag to me.

Abu Khalid: 

I said to myself, "By Allah, I will not leave until al-Mufaddal ibn Umar arrives and I confirm this.

Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar al-Sadiq) laughed and then said to me, "Yes, O Abu Khalid, do not leave until al-Mufaddal comes.

He continued to perplex me with his words. Then I said, "May I be your ransom! I stayed for days, please allow me to leave”.

Not long after, al-Mufaddal arrived. Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar) sent for me, and al-Mufaddal said, 'May Allah make me your ransom! Fulan sent with me a bag containing money. When we reached a certain place, a group of animals approached us, causing a disturbance. After they left, I looked for the bag on the camel but couldn't find it.' 

Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar) asked al-Mufaddal, 'Do you recognize the bag?' He replied, 'Yes, may I be your ransom.' Abu Abdullah (Imam Jafar) said, 'O servant girl, bring the bag.' The servant girl brought it, and when al-Mufaddal looked at it, he said, 'Yes, this is indeed the bag.'"

يا أبا خالد هذا كيس وجه به إلي فلان (6) مع المفضل بن عمر، 

واحتجت إلى ما فيه وكان الطريق مخوفا فبعثت هذا السبع فجاء به، قالفقلت في نفسيوالله لا أبرح حتى يقدم المفضل بن عمر وأعلمذلك، قالفضحك أبو عبد الله عليه السلام ثم قال لي:

نعم يا أبا خالد لا تبرح حتى يأتي المفضل، قالفتداخلني والله من ذلك حيرة، ثم

قلتأقلني جعلت فداك، وأقمت أياما، ثم قدم المفضل وبعث إلي أبو عبد الله عليه السلام فقال المفضلجعلني الله فداك إن فلانا بعث معيكيسا فيه مال، فلما صرت في موضع كذا وكذا جاء سبع وحال بيننا وبين رحالنا فلما مضى السبع طلبت الكيس في الرحل فلم أجده، قالأبو عبد الله عليه السلاميا مفضل أتعرف الكيس؟ قالنعم جعلني الله فداك، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلاميا جارية هاتي الكيس فأتت بهالجارية، فلما نظر إليه المفضل قالنعم هذا هو الكيس


It is no coincidence that a man whom Imam al-Sadiq regarding:

“O Mufaddal, if the Shi’a knew what you knew - no two would differ”

That the Imam would use this man (Mufaddal) to assess the reality of people who would come to the Imam & analyze their situations. 

(Al-Thaqib fil Manaqib by Ibn Hamza al-Tusi)

“Narrated Salih ibn al-Ash'ath al-Bazaz al-Kufi:

"I was in the presence of al-Mufaddal when a letter from our master al-Sadiq, peace be upon him, arrived.

He looked at it, then stood up and leaned on me. We walked together towards the door of the chamber of al-Sadiq, peace be upon him. 

Abdullah ibn Washah came out and said, 'Hurry, Mufaddal, in your steps, both you and your companion.'

We entered, and there was our master al-Sadiq, peace be upon him, seated on a chair with a woman in front of him. He said, 'O Mufaddal, take this woman and escort her to the wilderness on the outskirts of the city. See what her situation is and return to me quickly.'"

وهو ما حدث به صالح بن الأشعث البزاز الكوفي، قالكنت بين يدي المفضل إذ وردت عليه رقعة من مولانا الصادق عليه السلام، فنظر فيهافنهض قائما " واتكأ علي، ثم تسايرنا (1) إلى باب حجرة الصادق عليه السلام، فخرج إليه عبد الله بن وشاح، فقال:

أسرع يا مفضل في خطواتك، أنت وصاحبك هذا.

فدخلنا فإذا بالمولى الصادق عليه السلام قد قعد على كرسي، وبين يديه امرأة، فقاليا مفضل، خذ هذه المرأة وأخرجها إلى البرية في ظاهرالبلد فانظر ما يكون من أمرها وعد إلي سريعا.

Of course – the infallible Imam does not need to consult Mufaddal before going through the situation.

Rather, this was a phenomenon commonly excercised by our Imams - in which they would take advice from one of their companions, then only do what Allah commanded (regardless of their companions’ advice):

(Al-Mahasin, vol 2, page 601)

“Mu’amar ibn Khalad narrated: 

A servant of Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha named Sa'd perished. 

Imam al-Ridha asked Mu’amar said:

“Recommend someone to me who is virtuous and trustworthy (to replace Sa’d) – specifically, a man of virtue and trustworthiness."

Mu’amar said, "I (a fallible companion), give you advice?”

Al-Ridha replied in a state of semi-anger:

“Indeed, the Messenger of Allah used to consult his companions and then act on what Allah decided."”

عن معمّر بن خلاد قال : هلك مولى لأبي الحسن الرضا (عليه السلاميقال له سعد فقال : أشر عليّ برجل له فضل وأمانة.

فقال : أنا أشير عليك ؟.

فقال : شبه المغضب : إنّ رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وإلهكان يشير أصحابه ثم يعزم على ما يريد الله

This means that when Imam al-Sadiq consulted Mufaddal – it had a symbolic, not literal purpose.

It was to show the Shi’a the soundness of Mufaddal’s mind, intellect, and that if the all-knowing Imam can trust Mufaddal’s judgement in assessing situations for him.

The Shi’a must also trust Mufaddal’s judgement.


All of the aforementioned actions taken by Imam al-Sadiq was to lay down the foundation of Mufaddal’s authority to the Shi’a.

Theoretically, Mufaddal was now in a position to order the Shi’a and receive their unconditional obedience.

Some of Mufaddal’s orders can be displayed below:

  • Ordering al-Ahwal not to engage in kalam

“Narrated Mufaddal ibn 'Umar:

Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) peace be upon him, told me: "Visit Al-Ahwal and order him not to engage in kalam (debate)

So, I went to him in his house and he greeted me and made sure my needs were met.

I said to him: "Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) peace be upon him tells you not to engage in kalam." He replied: "I fear I may not be patient."


334 - علي، قالحدثنا محمد بن أحمد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن مروك ابن عبيد، عن أحمد بن النضر، عن المفضل بن عمر، قالقال ليأبو عبد الله عليه السلام:

أيت الأحول فأمره لا يتكلم، فأتيته في منزله، فأشرف علي، فقلت لهيقول لك أبو عبد الله عليه السلام لاتكلم، قالفأخاف ألا أصبر.

  • Ordering Khattabi belief on Imam identity

(Rijal al-Kashi, vol 2, page 618)

“I entered upon Abi Abdillah, peace be upon him, and listed the the names of Imams to him until I mentioned his name (al-Sadiq), and then I said: 

Ismail after you (as Imam). 

He (al-Sadiq) said: As for that - no (he is not the Imam after me)

So Hammad said: I said to Ismail ibn ‘Amir (the narrator)

What called you to say, ‘And Ismail (ibn Ja’far) after you?’

He said: Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar ordered me.”

حدثني حمدويه، قالحدثني محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن إسماعيل بن عامر، قالدخلت على أبي عبد اللهعليه السلام، فوصفت إليه الأئمة حتى انتهيت إليه، فقلتإسماعيل من بعدك، فقال:

أما ذا فلا، فقال حمادفقلت لإسماعيل وما دعاك إلى أن تقول وإسماعيل من بعدك؟ قالأمرني المفضل بن عمر

  • Conveying the Imam’s message to Shi’a (to not sin)

“Imam al-Sadiq told Mufaddal:

O Mufaddal, beware of sins and warn our Shia from sins.

For, by Allah, there is nothing faster to harm you than sins. By Allah, one of you may be afflicted with illness in his body, and it is nothing but due to his sins. And one of you may be deprived of sustenance, saying: 'What is wrong with me, and what is my condition!' It is nothing but due to his sins. And indeed, he may face oppression from the authority, saying: 'Why is this happening to me!' It is nothing but due to sins. 

However - by Allah, you will not held accountable for sins in the Hereafter. You will only be held accountable for them in dunya.”

وعنه (عليه السلام)، قال لمفضل بن عمر: " [يا مفضل] (1) إياك والذنوب ووحذر شيعتنا من الذنوب، فوالله ما هي إلى شئ أسرع منهإليكم، والله إن أحدكم ليرمى (2) بالسقم في بدنه، وما هو إلا بذنوبه، وإن أحدكم ليحجب من الرزق، فيقولما لي وما شأنيوما هو إلابذنوبه، وإنه لتصيبه المعرة (3) من السلطان، فيقولماليوما هو إلا بالذنوب، والله إنكم لا تؤاخذون بها في الآخرة

The Imam instructing his Babs to warn the Shi’a on his behalf is a feature characteristic of Babs.

After 18 years of service to Imam al-Baqir, Jabir ibn Yazid al-Ju’fi told the Imam he intended to leave and go back to Kufa.

Imam al-Baqir told him to convey to the Shi’a a list of his most important basic teachings, including:

(Al-Mufid’s Amali, page 296)

Imam al-Baqir said: 

“O Jabir convey my greetings to my Shia and inform them that there is no intercession from us to them except by obedience to Allah. And that no one can be of a closer station to Allah except through obedience to Him."

فقاليا جابر، بلغ شيعتي عني السلام، وأعلمهم أنه لا قرابة بيننا وبين الله (عز وجل)، ولا يتقرب إليه إلا بالطاعة له.

And who is Jabir?

Imam al-Sadiq tells Mufaddal:

(Al-Ikhtisas, page 216)

Mufaddal asked Imam al-Sadiq: "O son of the Messenger of Allah, what is the status of Jaber ibn Yazid among you Ahlulbayt: 

The Imam replied: "The status of Jabir is like the status of Salman with the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his family."

فقاليا ابن رسول الله فما منزلة جابر بن يزيد منكم؟ قالمنزلة سلمان من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله

And who was Salman?

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“Imam Ali said: "O Abu Dharr, indeed Salman is the Bab of Allah on Earth. 

Whoever recognizes him is a believer, and whoever denies him is an unbeliever. Indeed, Salman is one of us, Ahlulbayt”

فقال أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام): يا با ذر إن سلمان لو حدثك بما يعلم لقلترحم الله قاتل سلمان يا با ذر إن سلمان باب الله في الأرض،من عرفه كان مؤمنا، ومن أنكره كان كافرا، وإن سلمان منا أهل البيت

In short:

Imam al-Sadiq’s instruction to Mufaddal to warn the Shi’a on his behalf, is to instill the notion of his Babhood among the issue.

This is because it is reminding them of the instructions he gave his other Babs such as the great Bab Jabir ibn Yazid, to convey to the Shi’a.

By doing so, Mufaddal acts upon his Babhood by being the Imam’s emissary to the Shi’a.

Mufaddal conveys the Imam’s teachings and words to the Shi’a, and cannot be doubted in doing so.


With that being said, Mufaddal’s orders were not entirely of theological nature.

One of his most heartwarming orders is related to the following incident:

(Al-Mahasin, vol 2, page 551)

“Narrated Al-Mufaddal ibn 'Umar:

Fever was mentioned to Imam al-Sadiq, and the Imam said: 

We, the Ahlulbayt, do not seek treatment except with the pouring of cold water upon us and eating apples."

890 - عنه، عن أبي يوسف، عن القندي، عن المفضل بن عمر، عن أبي عبد الله (عقالذكر له الحمى فقالإنا أهل بيت لا نتداوىإلى بإفاضة الماء البارد يصب علينا، وأكل التفاح

Knowing of Imam al-Sadiq’s words that the Ahlulbayt do not seek treatment except with eating apples –

When Mufaddal heard that the Imam was sick, he ordered one of the Shi’a (Sulayman ibn Darstawiyah al-Wasti) to send Imam al-Sadiq a gift of green apples.


“Narrated Sulayman ibn Darstawiyah al-Wasiti:

Al-Mufaddal ibn 'Umar directed me with some needs to Abu Abdullah (peace be upon him).

The needs were unwrapped and before the Imam were green apples. 

I asked him, 'May I be your ransom, what is this?' 

He said, 'O Sulaiman, I experienced discomfort yesterday, so I asked for these to eat. They cool the heat, refresh the body, and dispel fever.' And Abu al-Khazraj narrated it from Sulaiman."

25 - المحاسنعن محمد بن جمهور، عن الحسن بن المثنى، عن سليمان بن درستويه الواسطي قالوجهني المفضل بن عمر بحوايجإلى أبى عبد الله عليه السلام فإذا قدامه تفاح أخضر، فقلت لهجعلت فداك ما هذا؟ فقاليا سليمان إني وعكت البارحة فبعثت إلىهذا لآكله، أستطفئ به الحرارةويبرد الجوف، ويذهب بالحمى، ورواه أبو الخزرج عن سليمان

When the incident repeated, Imam al-Sadiq asked Mufaddal for green apples and Mufaddal duly informed one of the Shi’a to send the Imam the apples:

(Al-Kafi, vol 6, page 356)

“Narrated Dursat ibn Abi Mansur: 

“Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar sent me to Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) with gifts.

I entered upon him on a hot day, and in front of him was a plate with green apples. 

By Allah, I initially exercised patience, but I could not help but tell the Imam:

May I be your ransom, will you eat this while people dislike it?

He replied to me as if he knew me personally:

“I experienced illness tonight, so I asked Mufaddal to send these apples and you brought them to me, and I ate them.

I ate them, as they alleviate the fever and calming the heat. 

I went back and found my family suffering from fever, so I fed them the apples, and the fever subsided.”

علي بن محمد بن بندار، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن علي الهمداني، عن عبد الله بن سنان، عن درست بن أبي منصور قالبعثني المفضل بنعمر إلى أبي عبد الله عليه السلام بلطف (5)

فدخلت عليه في يوم صايف وقدامه طبق فيه تفاح أخضر فوالله إن صبرت أن (1) قلت لهجعلت فداك أتأكل من هذا والناس يكرهونه؟ فقاللي كأنه لم يزل يعرفني وعكت (2) في ليلتي هذه فبعثت فأتيت به فأكلته وهو يقلع الحمى ويسكن الحرارة، فقدمت فأصبت أهلي محمومينفأطعمتهم فأقلعت الحمى عنهم.

Despite the similarity between the details of these two incidents, Allama Majlisi argues they are likely two separate incidents:

(Bihar al-Anwar, vol 63, page 173)

“It seems that the incident mentioned in this report differs from what was stated in the previous account due to difference in the narrators – despite the apparent resemblance”

وكأن الواقعة المذكورة في هذا الخبر غير ما ذكر في الخبر السابق لاختلاف الراوي، وإن كان يوهم تشابههما اتحادهما وعروض تصحيففي أحدهما.


While Mufaddal’s orders were clearly well-received by a number of Shi’a, as discussed above.

It seems an overwhelming amount of Shi’a had a distaste towards Mufaddal, likely sparked by the jealousy and plotting of rivals from among the Shi’a - as previously discussed.

The following ahadith allow us to reconstruct the difficult time Mufaddal faced as Imam al-Sadiq’s Bab and deputy in Kufa:

  • The Kufans are not very obedient to Mufaddal, but will be more obedient when the Qa’im rises

(Dala’il al-Imamah)

Narrated Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar:

Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) said:

“O Mufaddal, you and forty-four men will gather with the Qa'im (the Mahdi). 

You will be on the right side of the Qa'im, commanding and forbidding, and the people will be more obedient to you on that day, than they today”

 وبإسناده عن أبي علي النهاوندي، عن محمد بن بندار، عن محمد ابن سعيد، عن أبي عمران، عن محمد بن سنان، عن المفضل بن عمر،قالقال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): يا مفضل، أنت وأربعة وأربعون رجلا تحشرون مع القائم، أنت على يمين القائم تأمر وتنهى، والناس إذذاك أطوع لك منهم اليوم.

  • The Kufans defamed Mufaddal and opposed his orders

(Thawab al-A’mal of al-Saduq)

“Narrated Al-Mufaddal:

Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) said:

Indeed, Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, created the believers from the light of His magnificence and the glory of His pride. 

Whoever defames or opposes them in their sayings, Allah will oppose him in His throneand there is nothing from Allah for him. This person is nothing but the associate of Satan."

13 - ثواب الأعمالماجيلويه، عن عمه، عن الكوفي، عن محمد بن سنان، عن المفضل قالقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلامإن الله عز وجل خلقالمؤمنين من نور عظمته وجلال كبريائه، فمن طعن عليهم أو رد عليهم قولهم، فقد رد عليه الله في عرشه، وليس من الله في شئ، إنما هو شركشيطان

  • The Kufans narrated negative things against Mufaddal to disgrace him in the eyes of the people


Narrated Mufaddal ibn Umar:

Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) (peace be upon him) said to me:

Whoever narrates against a believer, intending thereby to disgrace him and undermine his integrity, such that he falls in the eyes of the people

Allah will expel him from His guardianship to the guardianship of Satan, and even Satan will not accept him."

محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن سنان، عن مفضل ابن عمر قالقال لي أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): من روىعلى مؤمن رواية يريد بها شينه وهدم مروءته ليسقط من أعين الناس أخرجه الله من ولايته إلى ولاية الشيطان فلا يقبله الشيطان

This refers to the following allegations that were made against Mufaddal after he was made Bab of Kufa.

(Rijal al-Kashi)

“They insisted, and he said: "I have established over you al-Mufaddal. Listen to him and accept his narrations from us, for he does not speak about Allah and myself except with the truth." 

However, things turned against him, and they accused him and his companions, saying: "His companions do not pray, they drink wine, they are the companions of pidgeons, they raid caravans. Al-Mufaddal, on the other hand, brings them close and draws them near."

  • They harmed Mufaddal, plotted against him, and treated him harshly due to his doctrine

(Al-Kafi, vol 2, page 351)

Narrated Al-Mufaddal ibn Umar:

“Abu Abdullah (Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq) (peace be upon him) said, "On the Day of Judgment, a caller will announce: 'Where are the oppressors against my allies?' 

Then a group will rise whose faces are not covered with flesh. It will be said, 'These are the ones who harmed the believers, opposed them, plotted against them, and treated them harshly in their religion.' Then they will be commanded towards Hell."

يزيد، عن المفضل بن عمر قالقال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): إذا كان يوم القيامة نادى منادأين الصدود لأوليائي (1) فيقوم قوم ليس علىوجوههم لحم، فيقالهؤلاء الذين آذوا المؤمنين ونصبوا لهم و عاندوهم وعنفوهم في دينهم، ثم يؤمر بهم إلى جهنم


By the end of his life, Mufaddal’s companions dwindled to just a “few companions”.

Very few respected his status as Bab of the Imam and obeyed him.

Their brutal and heart-wrenching behavior towards Mufaddal is furthe elaborated below:

(Tuhaf al-‘Uqul)

“Mufaddal said: 

Abu Abdullah (peace be upon him) once asked me while I was with him, "O Mufaddal, how many companions do you have?" 

I replied, "Few." 

So when I left for Kufa, the Shi’a came to me, and they tore me to pieces, they ate my flesh (with backbiting), insulted my honor, to the extent some of them even attacked my face and some of them awaited me in the streets of Kufa to beat me. They threw at me every false accusation, until that reached Aba Abdullah. al-Sadiq].

I did not return to him in the second year. The first thing he said to me after greeting me was, "O Mufaddal, what is this news that reached me about what these people are saying to you and about you?" I replied, "Why should I be concerned about what they say?”

He said, "Indeed, it is their fault. Are they infuriated due to their misery?"

ومما فيه قالوقال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلاممرة وأنا معهيا مفضل كم أصحابك؟ فقلتقليل، فلما انصرفت إلى الكوفة أقبلت علي الشيعةفمزقوني كل ممزق، يأكلون لحمي ويشتمون عرضي، حتى أن بعضهم استقبلني فوثب في وجهي، وبعضهم قعد لي في سكك الكوفة يريدضربي، ورموني بكل بهتان، حتى بلغ ذلك أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام). ما رجعت إليه في السنة الثانية كان أول ما استقبلني به بعد تسليمهعلي أن قاليا مفضل ما هذا الذي بلغني أن هؤلاء يقولون لك وفيك؟ قلتوما علي من قولهم، قال: " أجل بل ذلك عليهم، أيغضبون بؤسا لهم

Despite the violence and incessant harassment, 

Mufaddal remained true to the teachings of his masters – Al Muhammad.

Hence, Mufaddal says:

Why should I be concerned about what they say?”

The level of violence and shunning from his community did not affect Mufaddal’s faith.

Hence, in his wasiya (dying will), Mufaddal ibn Umar advises the Shi’a in every day and age saying:

(Al-Kafi, vol 2, page 400)

“Mufaddal ibn Umar in his wasiya narrates from Imam al-Sadiq:

Whomever has doubt or belief without evidence – and bases his religion on either, then his deeds are useless.

The hujja (evidence) of Allah is the clear hujja.”

33470) 7 - وعنهم عن أحمد قال في وصية المفضل بن عمر قال أبو عبد الله (عليه السلام): من شك أو ظن فأقام على أحدهما فقد حبط (1) عمله، إن حجة الله هي الحجة الواضحة

The great disciple Mufaddal ibn Umar wanted his legacy to be that the Shi’a of the future are inspired to seek the truth based on clear evidence.

It does not matter if the majority believes in falsehood without clear evidence.

The truth is the truth, regardless of how many believe in it.

May Allah bless you all


John Andaluso